Local Governments


The provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays comprise the territorial and political subdivisions of the Philippines. At present, there are 17 regions, 79 provinces, 115 cities and 1,495 municipalities.

The President exercises general supervision over local governments. The term of elective local officials is three years, and no official can serve for more than three consecutive terms.

Who are barred from being elected into any local position?

  • Those sentenced by final judgment for an offense involving moral turpitude or for an offense punishable by one year or more of imprisonment, within two years after serving sentence
  • Those removed from office as a result of an administrative case
  • Those convicted by final judgment for violating the oath of allegiance to the Republic
  • Those with dual citizenship
  • Fugitives from justice in criminal or nonpolitical cases in the Philippines or abroad
  • Permanent residents in a foreign country or those who have acquired the right to reside abroad and continue to avail of the same right after the Code took effect
  • The insane and feeble-minded

On what grounds may an elective local official be disciplined, suspended, or removed from office?

  • Disloyalty to the Republic of the Philippines
  • Culpable violation of the Constitution
  • Dishonesty, oppression, misconduct in office, gross negligence, or dereliction of duty
  • Commission of any offense involving moral turpitude or an offense punishable by at least prision mayor
  • Abuse of authority
  • Unauthorized absence for 15 consecutive working days, except in the case of members of the sangguniang panlalawigan, sangguniang panglungsod, sangguniang bayan, and sangguniang barangay
  • Application for, or acquisition of, foreign citizenship or residence or the status of an immigration of another country
  • Other grounds provided in the Local Government Code and other laws